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Ἐννόημα
! Vanity, in the words of St John Climacus, is arrogance before God and cowardice before men.
 
! The Publican was aware of his unworthiness, he was aware that he was unworthy of presenting himself before the face of God, but also of being admitted into the company of respectable people, people of whom God would approve.
 
! As the Publican stood on the threshold he knew that he belonged to the realm of evil, and had no access into the realm of God; and yet, he felt the difference, he felt horror at himself and a sense of worship, of adoration with regard to the Divine Realm.
 
! Τhe Pharisee was faithful to every one of the formal rules established by the Synagogue, as a number of us are faithful to the outer, external rules of life that do not penetrate even through our skin, which do not reach our heart, which do not give a new shape and meaning to our thoughts.
 
! Let us ask ourselves then: do we emulate the Pharisee in deed, outwardly faithful to all the tenets of our Christian Faith? And beyond this, do we allow our faith to transform our heart, to rule our will, to enlighten our mind?
 
Κυριακὴ Τελώνου καὶ Φαρισαίου
Anthony Bloom (Metropolitan of Sourozh (1914- 2003))



 


 
Εἰς τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ Υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ Ἁγίου Πνεύματος.


Δύο εβδομάδες πρὶν ἀκούσαμε στὸ Εὐαγγέλιο τὴν ἱστορία τοῦ Βαρτίμαιου καὶ τὴν προηγούμενη ἑβδομάδα τὴν ἱστορία τοῦ Ζακχαίου.

Ὁ Βαρτίμαιος ἦταν τυφλός, ἴσως ὅλη του τὴ ζωή, ἤ ἴσως κάποια συγκεκριμένη στιγμὴ εἶχε εἰκόνα ὅλης τῆς ὀμορφιᾶς τοῦ κόσμου, τῶν ἀνθρώπινων προσώπων, τὴν ὀμορφιὰ ἀπὸ κάθε τι ποὺ τὸν συνέδεε κατευθείαν μέσω τῆς κτίσης μὲ τὸν Θεὸ ποὺ δημιούργησε τὰ πάντα. Ἦταν ἕνας τυφλὸς ἄνθρωπος.

Μιὰν ἡμέρα ἕνα πλῆθος πέρασε δίπλα του, ἕνα παράξενο πλῆθος - ὄχι ἁπλὰ ἕνα θορυβῶδες πλῆθος περαστικῶν, ἀλλὰ ἕνα πλῆθος ποὺ εἶχε ἕναν πυρήνα, καὶ ὁ πυρήνας αὐτὸς ἦταν ὁ Κύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστός. Ὁ Βαρτίμαιος ἀντιλήφθηκε τὴν ἰδιαιτερότητα αὐτοῦ τοῦ πλήθους καὶ ρώτησε ποιὸς ἦταν ἐκεῖνος ποὺ τὸ ἕνωνε σὲ ἕνα σύνολο· καὶ τότε ἄρχισε νὰ κραυγάζει γιὰ βοήθεια, γιὰ νὰ ἐλευθερωθεῖ ἀπὸ τὴν τυφλότητά του.

Πόσες φορὲς δὲν εἴμασταν τυφλοί, ἤ πόσα πολλὰ χρόνια δὲν ζήσαμε ὅλοι σὰν τυφλοί; Τυφλοὶ στὴν ἀποκάλυψη τοῦ Θεοῦ ποὺ μᾶς προσφέρει ὁ κόσμος· τυφλοὶ στὴν ὀμορφιά, ὄχι στὴν ἐξωτερική της ποιότητα ἀλλὰ στὴν λάμψη τῆς θεϊκῆς λάμψης καὶ ὀμορφιᾶς ὅπως μᾶς ἀποκαλύπτεται. Πόσο συχνὰ δὲν κοιτάξαμε πρόσωπα δίχως ποτὲ νὰ δοῦμε ὅτι εἶναι είκόνες τοῦ Θεοῦ ποὺ θὰ πρέπει νὰ μᾶς φέρνουν σ’ ἐπαφὴ μὲ τὸν Θεό, καὶ νὰ μὴν στέκουν ἀνάμεσα σὲ μᾶς καὶ τὸν Θεὸ σὰν πειρασμός. Πόσο συχνὰ πέρασε ὁ Χριστὸς δίπλα μας καὶ ποτὲ δὲν προσέξαμε τὴν παρουσία Του;

Ἄς προβληματιστοῦμε καὶ ἄς ἀναρωτηθοῦμε ὄχι μόνο πόσο συχνὰ εἴμασταν τυφλοὶ στὸ παρελθόν, ἀλλὰ πόσο εἴμαστε τὴν παροῦσα στιγμὴ. Ό Χριστὸς βρίσκεται ἀνάμεσα μας. Τὸ ἀντιλαμβανόμαστε; Ἕνας Πατέρας τῆς Ἐρήμου εἶχε πεῖ : «Ὅποιος εἶδε τὸν πλησίον του ἔχει δεῖ τὸν Θεό». Ναὶ μιὰ εἰκόνα τοῦ Θεοῦ, μιὰ ἀληθινὴ εἰκόνα. Κατεστραμμένη στὴν πραγματικότητα, ὅπως τόσες πολλὲς εἰκόνες εἶναι βεβηλωμένες ἤ κατεστραμμένες· κατεστραμμένες σὲ βαθμό ποὺ, κάποιες φορὲς δὲν ἀναγνωρίζονται, καὶ ὅμως εἶναι μιὰ θεία εἰκόνα.

Τὴν προηγούμενη ἑβδομαδα ἀκούσαμε γιὰ τὸν Ζακχαῖο. Ὁ Ζακχαῖος ξεπέρασε ἕναν ἄλλον πειρασμὸ ποὺ μᾶς εἶναι πολὺ γνωστός, αὐτὸν τῆς ματαιότητας· ἡ ματαιότητα ποὺ σημαίνει τὴν προσκόλλησή μας σὲ πράγματα ἀσήμαντα καὶ ἡ προσπάθειά μας νὰ προκαλέσουμε μέσα ἀπὸ αὐτὰ τὸν θαυμασμὸ ἄλλων ἀνθρώπων ποὺ δὲν ἔχουν δικαίωμα νὰ κρίνουν, ἐπειδὴ εἶναι ἐπίσης δέσμιοι στὴν ἴδια μικρότητα τῆς καρδιᾶς καὶ τοῦ νοῦ. Ἡ ματαιότητα, κατὰ τὸν Ἅγιο Ἰωάννη τῆς Κλίμακας, εἶναι ὑπερηφάνεια ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ δειλία ἐνώπιον τῶν ἀνθρώπων· μιὰ ἐπιθυμία νὰ μὴν κριθοῦμε, νὰ μὴν καταδικαστοῦμε, ἀλλὰ νὰ μᾶς θαυμάζουν, νὰ μᾶς ἐπαινοῦν, νὰ μᾶς ἐπιδοκιμάζουν ἀκόμα γιὰ πράγματα ποὺ δὲν ἔχουν κάποια ἀξία, ἁπλὰ καὶ μόνο νὰ μᾶς ἐπιδοκιμάζουν.

Πρότεινα τὴν προηγούμενη ἑβδομάδα ὅτι πρέπει να ἑστιάσουμε τὴν προσοχή μας σὲ αὐτὴν τὴν ἰδιαίτερη γιὰ μᾶς ἁμαρτία καὶ νὰ ἀναρωτηθοῦμε πόσο εἴμαστε ἀνεξάρτητοι ἀπὸ τὴν κρίση τῶν ἀνθρώπων, πόσο εἴμαστε ἀδιάφοροι στὴν κρίση τῆς δικῆς μας συνείδησης καὶ μέσα ἀπὸ αὐτὴν, στὴν κρίση τοῦ ἴδιου τοῦ Θεοῦ;

Σήμερα ἔχουμε νὰ κάνουμε μὲ μιὰ τρίτη εἰκόνα· μὲ τὴν ἱστορία τοῦ Φαρισαίου καὶ τοῦ Τελώνη. Ὁ Τελώνης εἶχε συναίσθηση τῆς ἀναξιότητάς του, ὅτι ἦταν ἀνάξιος νὰ παρουσιαστεῖ ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ, ἀλλὰ ἐπίσης ὅτι ἦταν εὐπρόσδεκτος στὴν συντροφιὰ ἀξιοσέβαστων ἀνθρώπων, ποὺ ὁ Θεὸς θὰ ἀποδεχόταν. Ἦλθε στὴν πόρτα τοῦ Ναοῦ καὶ δὲν μποροῦσε νὰ διασχίσει τὸ κατώφλι γιατὶ γνώριζε ὅτι σὲ αὐτὸν τὸν κόσμο τὸν ἀκάθαρτο, τὸν μολυσμένο, τὸν βεβηλωμένο ἀπὸ τὴν ἀνθρώπινη ἁμαρτία, ἀπὸ τὸ αἷμα καὶ τὸ κακό σὲ ὅλες του τὶς μορφὲς, ὁ Ναὸς ἦταν ἕνας τόπος ἀφιερωμένος μόνο στὸν Θεό. Ὅλος ὁ ὑπόλοιπος κόσμος, γιὰ νὰ χρησιμοποιήσω μιὰ φράση τοῦ Σατανᾶ ποὺ πείραξε τον Κύριο, ὅλο τὸν ὑπόλοιπο κόσμο «τὸν παρέδωσε ὁ ἄνθρωπος σ’ ἐμένα». Ἀλλὰ ὁ ναὸς εἶναι ἕνας χῶρος ὅπου ἄνθρωποι τῆς πίστης, ἀδύναμοι ἀλλὰ μὲ πίστη στὸν Θεὀ, εἶναι ἀποκομμένοι ἀπὸ τοῦτο τὸ βασίλειο τοῦ τρόμου ποὺ εἶναι τὸ δράμα τῆς Θεϊκῆς ὀμορφιᾶς, τῆς κατοικίας τοῦ Ἑνὸς ποὺ δὲν ἔχει τόπο νὰ «κλίνει τὴν κεφαλή», σ’ ἕναν κόσμο ποὺ τὸν ἔκλεψαν ἀπ’ Αὐτὸν καὶ παραδόθηκε στὰ χέρια τοῦ ἀντιπάλου.

Ὁ Τελώνης στάθηκε στὴν εἴσοδο τοῦ Ναοῦ, γνώριζε ὅτι ἀνῆκε στὸ βασίλειο τοῦ κακοῦ, καὶ δὲν μποροῦσε νὰ εἰσέλθει στὸν ἱερὸ χῶρο τοῦ Θεοῦ· καὶ ὅμως, ἔνοιωσε τὴ διαφορά, ὁ τρόμος τὸν συνεῖχε καὶ μιὰ αἴσθηση λατρείας γιὰ τὸ βασίλειο τοῦ Θεοῦ. Χτυποῦσε τὸ στῆθος του ζητώντας ἔλεος γιατὶ δὲν μποροῦσε νὰ ἐλπίζει καὶ νὰ ὑπολογίζει σὲ τίποτα ἄλλο.

Καὶ ὁ Φαρισαῖος στάθηκε στὸ μέσον τῆς Ἐκκλησίας· εἶχε μπεῖ στὸ ναὸ καὶ εἶχε πάρει τὴ θέση του ἐκεῖ σὰν κάποιος ποὺ εἶχε τὸ δικαίωμα νὰ βρίσκεται ἐκεῖ. Γιατί; Ὄχι ἐπειδὴ ἦταν ἕνας ἄνθρωπος μὲ ἁγνὴ καρδιά, ἀλλὰ ἐπειδὴ ἦταν πιστὸς στὸν κάθε τυπικὸ κανόνα ποὺ εἶχε καθιερωθεῖ ἀπὸ τὴ Συναγωγή, ὄπως ἕνας ἀριθμὸς ἀπὸ ἐμᾶς εἶναι πιστὸς στοὺς ἐξωτερικοὺς τύπους τῆς ζωῆς ποὺ δὲν μᾶς ἀγγίζουν κἄν, ποὺ δὲν φτάνουν στὴν καρδιά μας, ποὺ δὲν δίνουν νέο σχῆμα καὶ νόημα στὶς σκέψεις μας.

Ἔτσι πάλι, βρισκόμαστε ἐνώπιον δύο ἀνδρῶν καὶ ὁ Χριστὸς μᾶς ρωτᾶ: ποιὸς εἶσαι; Εἶσαι κάποιος ποὺ συναισθάνεται τόσο βαθιὰ τῆν ἱερότητα τοῦ Θεοῦ, ποὺ γνωρίζει ὅτι, ἐκτὸς ἀπὸ ἕναν Θεὸ ποὺ θὰ κατέβαινε στὴ γῆ γιὰ νὰ μᾶς θεραπεύσει καὶ νὰ μᾶς σώσει, δὲν θὰ ὑπῆρχε τρόπος νὰ Τὸν προσεγγίσουμε. Ἤ εἴμαστε σὰν τὸν Φαρισαῖο ποὺ θὰ ἔλεγε στὸν Θεό, ποὺ θὰ Τοῦ ἔλεγε κατάμουτρα: Ἔκανα ὅ,τι ἦταν γραμμένο νὰ γίνει. Δὲν ἔχεις κάτι νὰ μοῦ ζητήσεις! … Δὲν εἴμαστε τόσο ὑπερήφανοι ὅπως ὁ Φαρισαῖος, οὔτε ἔχουμε τὸ σταθερὸ θάρρος νὰ εἴμαστε τόσο πιστοὶ ὅσο ἦταν ἐκεῖνος στὴν πλήρη τήρηση τοῦ γράμματος τοῦ νόμου.

Ἄς ἀναρωτηθοῦμε λοιπὸν: μιμούμαστε τὸν Φαρισαῖο στὰ ἔργα του, ἐξωτερικὰ πιστοὶ στὰ δόγματα τῆς Χριστιανικῆς μας πίστης; Καὶ πέρα ἀπὸ αὐτὸ, ἐπιτρέπουμε στὴν πίστη μας νὰ μεταστρέψει τὴν καρδιά μας, νὰ κυβερνᾶ τὴν θέληση μας, καὶ νὰ φωτίζει τὸ νοῦ μας;

Αὐτὴν τὴν ἐργασία μᾶς προσφέρει τὸ σημερινό Εὐαγγέλιο. Σκεφτεῖτε το. Θὰ εἶναι ἕνα ἀκόμα βῆμα γιὰ νὰ πάρουμε μιὰν ἀπόφαση ὥστε νὰ μὴν καταδικαστοῦμε. Ἀμήν.


Ἀπόδοση Κειμένου: www.agiazoni.gr

 

Πρωτότυπο Κείμενο

1993, February 7th
 


In the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost.

Two weeks ago we heard the Gospel relating the story of the blind man, Bartimaeus (St Luke XVIII :35-43), and last week that of Zacchaeus (St Luke XIX: l-10).

Bartimaeus had been blind, perhaps all his life, or perhaps at a certain moment he had lost sight of all the beauty of the world, of human faces, of everything that related him directly through the created world to God who made all things. He was a blind man. One day a crowd passed by him, a strange crowd - not just a noisy crowd of passers-by, but a crowd that had a centre, and the centre was the Lord Jesus Christ. Bartimaeus perceived the uniqueness of this crowd and asked who it was that made it into a whole; and then he began to cry for help, to be freed from his blindness.

How many times have we been blind, or how many years have we all lived blind? Blind to that revelation of God which the created world is offering us; blind to beauty, not to its external quality but to the shining of the divine wisdom and the divine beauty through it. How often have we looked at faces and never seen that they are icons of God that should relate us to God, and not stand between God and us as a temptation. How often has Christ passed quite close to us and we have never noticed His presence and His passing?

Let us reflect on ourselves and ask ourselves not only how often we were blind in the past, but how blind we are at this present hour. Christ is in our midst. Are we aware of it? Christ meets us in every person. Are we aware of that? One of the Desert Fathers said: "He who has seen his neighbour has seen his God". Yes, an image of God, a real image. Damaged indeed like so many icons, desecrated or damaged; damaged to the point, at times, of being unrecognisable, and yet, a divine image.

Last week we heard about Zacchaeus.

Zacchaeus overcame another temptation which is very familiar to us, that of vanity; vanity that consists in attaching ourselves to things of no value and trying to derive through them the admiration of other people who have no right to judge, because they also are prisoners of the same smallness of mind and smallness of heart. Vanity, in the words of St John Climacus, is arrogance before God and cowardice before men; a desire not to be judged, not to be condemned, but to be admired, to be praised, to be approved of, even for things that are not worthy of approval, just to be approved.

I suggested last week that we must concentrate our attention on that particular sin of ours and ask ourselves how dependent am I on the judgement of men, how indifferent am I to the judgement of my own conscience and beyond it, through it, of God Himself? How much do I look for approval and admiration of things that are unworthy of me, not only to speak of God?

Today we are confronted with a third image; we are confronted with the story of the Pharisee and of the Publican (St Luke XVIII: 10-14). The Publican was aware of his unworthiness, he was aware that he was unworthy of presenting himself before the face of God, but also of being admitted into the company of respectable people, people of whom God would approve. He came to the door of the Temple and could not cross the threshold because he knew that in this world soiled, polluted, desecrated by human sin, by blood and evil in all its forms, the Temple was a place which was devoted to God alone. All the rest of the world, to use a phrase of Satan tempting Christ, all the rest of the world "has been betrayed into my hands by man". But the Temple is a space which men of faith, frail indeed but believing in God, cut out of this realm of horror to be a vision of divine beauty, a dwelling place for the One who has nowhere to rest His Head in a world that was stolen from Him and betrayed into the hands of the adversary.

As the Publican stood on the threshold he knew that he belonged to the realm of evil, and had no access into the realm of God; and yet, he felt the difference, he felt horror at himself and a sense of worship, of adoration with regard to the Divine Realm. He beat his chest and asked for mercy because there was nothing else he could hope for and count on.

And the Pharisee stood right in the middle of the Church; he had walked in and taken his stand there as one who had the right to be there. Why? Not because he was a man of pure heart, but because he was faithful to every one of the formal rules established by the Synagogue, as a number of us are faithful to the outer, external rules of life that do not penetrate even through our skin, which do not reach our heart, which do not give a new shape and meaning to our thoughts.

So, again, we are confronted by two men and asked by Christ: who are you? Are you one who is so deeply aware of the sanctity of God that he knows that, apart from a God who would step down to us to heal and save, there is no access to Him. Or are we like the Pharisee who would say to God, throw it in His face: I have done all that is prescribed. You have nothing to ask of me!.. We are not that arrogant because we have not even the courage of being arrogant as the Pharisee was, neither have we got the constancy of courage to be as faithful as he was to the full of the life of the law.

Let us ask ourselves then: do we emulate the Pharisee in deed, outwardly faithful to all the tenets of our Christian Faith? And beyond this, do we allow our faith to transform our heart, to rule our will, to enlighten our mind?

This is the task which the Gospel offers us. Think about it. It will be one more step to pronouncing upon ourselves a judgement so that we are not condemned. Amen.
 


 
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Συναφείς παραπομπές από την Αγία Γραφή


Πῶς ἰσορροποῦμε;

(Ἁπλοποιημένη μορφὴ κειμένου τοῦ Ἁγίου Νικοδήμου τοῦ Ἁγιορείτου περὶ τῶν βασικῶν ἐντολῶν τοῦ Εὐαγγελίου. Ὁ καλύτερος καθρέφτης, ὁ καθρέφτης τῆς Ἀγάπης τοῦ Θεοῦ. Ὅταν ἔρχονται τὰ προβλήματα, τὰ ψυχικὰ καὶ τὰ κοινωνικὰ, ἐκεῖ ρίχνουμε τὴν ματιά μας γιὰ νὰ μπορέσουμε νὰ βροῦμε τὴν ἰσορροπία μας· τὶ μᾶς φταίει.)

Ἀπαντᾶ ὁ Ἅγιος Νικόδημος ὁ Ἁγιορείτης